Monday, August 12, 2013

Afghan Civil War (1928–1929)


PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS:Initially, various Afghan tribes vs. the government of Emir Amanullah Khan in Kabul; then Pashtun rebels vs. the Tajik followers of the bandit usurper Habibullah Ghazi
PRINCIPAL THEATER(S):Kabul, Afghanistan
DECLARATION:None
MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES:Initially, rebels sought to reverse the emir’s modern reforms and protect their tribal and Muslim traditions; outlaw leader Habibullah Ghazi wanted to depose the emir and take his place as ruler of Afghanistan; the Pashtuns wished to overthrow the usurper and return the throne to a “legitimate” ruler from the Musabihan clan.
OUTCOME:Amanullah abdicated in favor of his brother, who in turn abdicated under threat of attack from Habibullah, who was in turn ousted and executed by  the Musabihans, placing Nadir Shah on the throne and,
with British help, reuniting the country.
APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEN UNDER ARMS: Royal army, 15,000; rebel numbers unknown
CASUALTIES:Rebel casualties, 15,000 killed; royal casualties unknown
TREATIES:None

Aethelfrith’s Wars(593–616)


PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS:Northumbria vs. (in succession) the Dalriad Scots and the Britons
PRINCIPAL THEATER(S):Scotland, Wales, and Nottingham
DECLARATION:None recorded
MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES:Struggle for dominance among the Anglo-Saxon heptarchy (i.e., Kent, Sussex, Wessex, Essex, Northumbria, East Anglia, and Mercia).
OUTCOME:Aethelfrith achieved dominance in the heptarchy, only to be slain in battle by the ally of a rival.
APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEN UNDER ARMS: Unknown
CASUALTIES:Unknown
TREATIES:None recorded

Aethelbald’s Wars (733–750)


PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS:Mercia vs. Wessex and
Northumbria
PRINCIPAL THEATER(S):England
DECLARATION:Not known; probably none
MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES:The Mercian king Aethel-bald and his cousin-successor, Offa, invaded Wessex and
Northumbria with the purpose of establishing Mercian
dominance of Anglo-Saxon England, thereby effecting
the first real unification of England.
OUTCOME:Wessex was successfully invaded in 733
and Northumbria in 744, ultimately resulting in the
unification of much of England under Aethelbald and
his successor, Offa.
APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEN UNDER ARMS:
Unknown
CASUALTIES:Unknown
TREATIES:No surviving documents

Sunday, August 11, 2013

Acoma Revolt (1599)

PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS:Acoma Indians vs. Spanish Empire
PRINCIPAL THEATER(S):American Southwest
DECLARATION:None
MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES: The Acoma were resisting Spanish conquest and enslavement; the Spanish wished to make an example of the Acoma.
OUTCOME:The Acoma were defeated and brutally punished.
APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEN UNDER ARMS: Spain, 400; Indians, approximately 200–300
CASUALTIES:Spanish, fewer than 50 killed or wounded; Indians, 100–150 killed or wounded, approximately 80 intentionally maimed
TREATIES:None

Achinese War(1873–1907)

PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS: The Netherlands vs. Acheh
PRINCIPAL THEATER(S):Northeastern Sumatra
DECLARATION:None
MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES:The Dutch sought to quell piracy in the East Indies, subjugate the Achinese Muslims, and colonize all of Indonesia; the Achinese sought to maintain their independence and continue their lucrative raids against imperial trade.
OUTCOME:More than a quarter century of bitter guerrilla warfare culminated in Dutch control of Acheh.
APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEN UNDER ARMS:
Dutch, 10,500; Achinese, unknown
CASUALTIES:Dutch, 2,317 killed; Achinese, 11,187 killed
TREATIES:Treaty of 1903

Achinese Sackings of Johore(1613–1615)

PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS:Acheh vs. Johore
PRINCIPAL THEATER(S):Johore and Perak in southern Malaysia
DECLARATION:None
MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES:Acheh sought to take advantage of the Portuguese-Dutch colonial war in the East Indies to grab the mineral-rich Perak region. They thus hoped to preempt the Dutch from establishing an entrêpot at Johore, from whence they could both control the Spice Islands trade and easily threaten nearby Acheh.
OUTCOME:Acheh sacked and razed Johore and became a player in the Spice Islands trade; the Dutch set up Batavia as their entrêpot in Indonesia.
APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEN UNDER ARMS:
Possibly 100,000 Achinese troops; Johore forces,
unknown
CASUALTIES:Unknown
TREATIES:None

Achinese Rebellion(1953–1959)

PRINCIPAL COMBATANTS:Acheh’s Muslim rebels vs. the
Republic of Indonesia
PRINCIPAL THEATER(S):Northern Sumatra
DECLARATION:None
MAJOR ISSUES AND OBJECTIVES:Indonesia, having finally
won independence from the Dutch, sought to consolidate
the republic by annexing Acheh; Acheh’s Muslim majority,
desiring a strict theocracy, fought to maintain autonomy
from the republic.
OUTCOME:Acheh lost its independence but maintained
autonomy in religious matters and over local customs
and law.
APPROXIMATE MAXIMUM NUMBER OF MEN UNDER ARMS:
Unknown
CASUALTIES:Very limited
TREATIES:None